Marketing Concept; Evolution of Marketing

Marketing is the process by which companies create value for customers and build strong customer relationships in order to capture value from customers in return. Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, Prafulla Y. Agnihotri and Ehsan ul Haque :Chapter 1 - Page Nos. 04 to 07

Marketing Mix

The marketing mix is the set of controllable, tactical marketing tools that the firm blends to produce the response it wants in the target market. The marketing mix consists of everything the firm can do to influence the demand for its product. Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, Prafulla Y. Agnihotri and Ehsan ul Haque ; Chapter 2 - Page nos. 44-55

Marketing Environment

A company's marketing environment consists of the actors and forces outside marketing that affect marketing management's ability to build and maintain successful relationships with target customers. Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, Prafulla Y. Agnihotri and Ehsan ul Haque ; Chapter 3 - Page nos. 59-81.

Consumer Behavior

Consumer buying behavior refers to the study of customers and how they behave while deciding to buy a product that satisfies their needs. Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, Prafulla Y. Agnihotri and Ehsan ul Haque ; Chapter 5 - Page nos. 114-129.

Consumer Behavior – factors affecting consumer behavior

There are many factors which affect the consumers buying behavior. The regional, social, cultural, psychological and personal factors motivate and decide the purchasing decisions of individuals. Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, Prafulla Y. Agnihotri and Ehsan ul Haque ; Chapter 5 - Page nos. 130-138

Segmentation and its Bases

Segmentation is the process of dividing complete market into sub-markets based on similar characteristics of groups of consumers. Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, Prafulla Y. Agnihotri and Ehsan ul Haque ; Chapter 7 - Page nos. 162-170

Positioning

Positioning is the process of creating an image of the product or brand in the mindset of the consumers and it also defines how marketers promote their products and services in the market. Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, Prafulla Y. Agnihotri and Ehsan ul Haque ; Chapter 7 - Page nos. 178-187

Targeting

Targeting is the process through which an advertiser identifies users that they would like to reach and then advertises to them through various channels. By constructing the right user persona, understanding user habits and finding the platforms to reach them, an advertiser uses targeting to improve the performance of their campaigns. Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, Prafulla Y. Agnihotri and Ehsan ul Haque ; Chapter 7 - Page nos. 170-177

Product Differentiation V/s Market Segmentation

Different customers have different needs, requirements and desires for consumption value for products. Markets have to understand their customers needs have to make some changes to the product that is product differentiation. Segmentation is dividing the market into similar character groups. Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, Prafulla Y. Agnihotri and Ehsan ul Haque ; Chapter 7 - Page nos. 178-180

Product

Product as anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use, or consumption that might safety a want or need. Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, Prafulla Y. Agnihotri and Ehsan ul Haque ; Chapter 8 - Page nos. 190-192

New Product Life Cycle

New product life cycle emerges when the new innovative product is initiated in the market. Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, Prafulla Y. Agnihotri and Ehsan ul Haque ; Chapter 9 - Page nos. 222-240

Product Mix

Product mix, also known as product assortment or product portfolio, refers to the complete set of products and/or services offered by a firm. A product mix consists of product lines, which are associated items that consumers. Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, Prafulla Y. Agnihotri and Ehsan ul Haque ; Chapter 9 - Page nos. 236

Branding

Branding is the process of giving a meaning to specific organization, company, products or services by creating and shaping a brand in consumers' minds. Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, Prafulla Y. Agnihotri and Ehsan ul Haque ; Chapter 8 - Page nos. 203

Packaging and Labelling

Packaging refers to the process of designing and developing a suitable package for enclosing and holding the product so that it can be easily covered and secured. Labeling refers to the text, design, symbol, logo, instructions and suggestions for usage etc.

Pricing and factors affecting price of a product

Pricing is the final amount which is offered to the customers and customers are ready to negotiate the value for a product. Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, Prafulla Y. Agnihotri and Ehsan ul Haque ; Chapter 10 - Page nos. 247-265

Pricing Polices and Strategies

The pricing of any product is extremely complex and intense as it is a result of a number of calculations, research work, risk taking ability and understanding of the market and the consumers. The management of the company considers everything before they price a product, this everything includes the segment of the product, the ability of a consumer to pay for the products, the conditions of the market, action of the competitor, the production and the raw material cost or you can say the cost of manufacturing, and of course the margin or the profit margins. Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, Prafulla Y. Agnihotri and Ehsan ul Haque ; Chapter 11 - Page nos. 267 - 271

Promotion and its elements

In marketing, promotion refers to any type of marketing communication used to inform target audiences of the relative merits of a product, service, brand or issue, most of the time persuasive in nature. Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, Prafulla Y. Agnihotri and Ehsan ul Haque ; Chapter 14 - Page nos. 340-358

Promotion Mix and Factors affecting Promotion Mix Decision

A company's total promotion mix is also known as marketing communication mix and consists of the specific blend of advertising, public relations, personal selling, sales promotion, and direct marketing tools that the company uses to persuasively communicate customer value and build customer relationships. Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, Prafulla Y. Agnihotri and Ehsan ul Haque ; Chapter 14 - Page nos. 340-358

Distribution Channel and its types

Good distribution strategies can contribute strongly to customer value and create competitive advantage for both a firm and its channel partners. Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, Prafulla Y. Agnihotri and Ehsan ul Haque ; Chapter 12 - Page nos. 291 - 310

Channel Design Decisions

Channel design is presented as a decision faced by the marketer, and it includes either setting up channels from scratch or modifying existing channels. The term design implies that the marketer is consciously and actively allocating the distribution tasks to develop an efficient channel. Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, Prafulla Y. Agnihotri and Ehsan ul Haque ; Chapter 12 - Page nos. 291 - 310
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